In reading through the Scriptures, in both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings, the overwhelming theme is the restoration, regathering, and reunification of both Houses of Israel- Judah and Joseph. What I find incredible is the numerous references to the Lost Ten Tribes in the Apostolic Writings that are referencing back to a specific terminology or event in the Torah and the Prophets! Time and time again, references made to the Lost Ten Tribes in the Torah, the Prophets, or the Writings will find their fulfillment in the Apostolic Writings.
This article is intended to be an ongoing study.
The following is a brief list of references, organized by topic, with commentary in blue text kept to a bare minimum.
Tanakh and Apostolic Parallels: The Divorced Woman
(Deuteronomy 24:1-4, Jeremiah 3:1, 8, 11-14, compared with Romans 7:1-6)
1 When a man takes a wife, and marries her, then it shall be, if she find no favor in his eyes, because he has found some unseemly thing in her, that he shall write her a bill of divorce, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house. 2 When she is departed out of his house, she may go and be another man’s wife. 3 If the latter husband hate her, and write her a bill of divorce, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife; 4 her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD: and you shall not cause the land to sin, which the LORD your God gives you for an inheritance.
Jeremiah 3:1, 8, 11-14
1 “They say, ‘If a man puts away his wife, and she goes from him, and become another man’s, will he return to her again?’ Wouldn’t that land be greatly polluted? But you have played the prostitute with many lovers; yet return again to me,” says the LORD.
8 “I saw, when, for this very cause that backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a bill of divorce…”
11 The LORD said to me, “Backsliding Israel has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Judah. 12 Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, ‘Return, you backsliding Israel,’ says the LORD; ‘I will not look in anger on you; for I am merciful,’ says the LORD. ‘I will not keep anger forever. 13 Only acknowledge your iniquity, that you have transgressed against the LORD your God, and have scattered your ways to the strangers under every green tree, and you have not obeyed my voice,’ says the LORD. 14 Return, backsliding children,” says the LORD; “for I am a husband to you. I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion. 15 I will give you shepherds according to my heart, who shall feed you with knowledge and understanding.”
1 Or do you not know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 2 For the woman (divorced Israel) that has a husband is bound by law (by context, the law of divorce, referencing Deuteronomy 24:1-4) to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband (the law of divorce, not the Torah itself). 3 So then if, while the husband lives, she (divorced Israel) is joined to another man (back to God), she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband (God) dies, she is free from the law (of divorce), so that she (divorced Israel) is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. (back to God) 4 Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law (of divorce) through the body of Messiah, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 5 For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law (of divorce), worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 6 But now we have been discharged from the law (of divorce), having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. (The law of divorce, as seen in Deuteronomy 24:1-4, did not permit a divorced woman to return to her first husband once she had been with another. Yeshua’s death on the cross provided a way for divorced Israel, who had been with other “husbands”, to return back into marriage with her first husband, God.)
Tanakh and Apostolic Parallels: The Unity and Restoration of Judah and Joseph under One Head
(Ezekiel 37:15-25, Hosea 1:2-11, Isaiah 11:10-13, compared with Ephesians 2:1-22)
15 The word of the LORD came again to me, saying, 16 “You, son of man, take one stick, and write on it, ‘For Judah’, and for the children of Israel his companions: then take another stick, and write on it, ‘For Joseph’, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel his companions: 17 and join them for you one to another into one stick, that they may become one in your hand.
18 “When the children of your people shall speak to you, saying, ‘Will you not show us what you mean by these?’ 19 Tell them, thus says the Lord the LORD: ‘Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his companions; and I will put them with it, even with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in My hand.’ 20 The sticks whereon you write shall be in your hand before their eyes.
21 “Say to them, thus says the Lord the LORD: ‘Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the nations, (gentiles) where they are gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land: 22 and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and One King (Yeshua) shall be King to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all; 23 neither shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions; but I will save them out of all their dwelling places, in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them: so shall they be My people, and I will be their God. 24 My servant David (Yeshua) shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: (Yeshua) they shall also walk in My ordinances, and observe my statutes, and do them. 25 They shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they shall dwell therein, they, and their children, and their children’s children, forever: and David My servant (Yeshua) shall be their prince for ever.’ ”
2 When the LORD spoke at first by Hosea, the LORD said to Hosea, “Go, take for yourself a wife of prostitution and children of unfaithfulness; for the land commits great adultery, forsaking the LORD.”
3 So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; and she conceived, and bore him a son.
4 The LORD said to him, “Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and will cause the kingdom of the house of Israel to cease. 5 It will happen in that day that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.”
6 She conceived again, and bore a daughter.
Then He said to him, “Call her name Lo-Ruhamah; for I will no longer have mercy on the house of Israel, that I should in any way pardon them. 7 But I will have mercy on the house of Judah, and will save them by the LORD their God, and will not save them by bow, sword, battle, horses, or horsemen.”
8 Now when she had weaned Lo-Ruhamah, she conceived, and bore a son.
9 He said, “Call his name Lo-Ammi; for you are not My people, and I will not be yours. 10 Yet the number of the children of Israel will be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered; and it will come to pass that, in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not My people,’ they will be called ‘sons of the living God.’ 11 The children of Judah and the children of Israel will be gathered together, and they will appoint themselves One Head, (Yeshua) and will go up from the land; for great will be the day of Jezreel.”
10 It will happen in that day that the nations will seek the root of Jesse, (Yeshua) who stands as a banner of the peoples; (Yeshua) and His resting place will be glorious. 11 It will happen in that day that the Lord will set his hand (Yeshua) again the second time to recover the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Egypt, from Pathros, from Cush, from Elam, from Shinar, from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. 12 He will set up a banner for the nations, (Yeshua) and will assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. 13 The envy also of Ephraim will depart, and those who persecute Judah will be cut off. Ephraim will not envy Judah, and Judah will not persecute Ephraim.
1 You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins, 2 in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the children of disobedience; 3 among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 4 But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us, 5 even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Messiah (by grace you have been saved), 6 and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Messiah Yeshua, 7 that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Messiah Yeshua; 8 for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, 9 not of works, that no one would boast. 10 For we are his workmanship, created in Messiah Yeshua for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them.
11 Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “uncircumcision” (Joseph) by that which is called “circumcision,” (Judah) (in the flesh, made by hands); 12 that you were at that time separate from Messiah, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Messiah Yeshua you who once were far off (Joseph) are made near in the blood of Messiah. (Deuteronomy 28:64, “Then the LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other…” Deuteronomy 30:4, “If any of you are driven out to the farthest parts under heaven, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you.”) 14 For He is our peace who made the two one, and He destroyed the wall that was standing in the middle. 15 He has canceled the hatred by His flesh and the law of commands in His commandments, that for the two, He would create in his Person one new man, and He has made peace. 16 He has reconcile them (Judah and Joseph) both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 17 He came and preached peace to you who were far off (Joseph) and to those who were near. (Judah) 18 For through Him we both (Judah and Joseph) have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 19 So then you (Joseph) are no longer strangers and foreigners, but you are fellow citizens with the holy ones, and of the household of God, 20 being built on the foundation of the emissaries and prophets, Messiah Yeshua Himself being the chief cornerstone; 21 in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 22 in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
Tanakh and Apostolic Parallels: Fishers of Men
(Jeremiah 16:14-16, compared with Mark 1:17)
14 “Therefore behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that it shall no more be said, ‘As the LORD lives, who brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt;’ 15 but, ‘As the LORD lives, who brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the countries where he had driven them.’ I will bring them again into their land that I gave to their fathers. 16 Behold, I will send for many fishermen,” (fishers of men, Israelites) says the LORD, “and they shall fish them up; and afterward I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the clefts of the rocks.”
17 Yeshua said to them, “Come after Me, and I will make you into fishers for men.” (by context of Jeremiah 16:16, these would be fishers of lost Israel)
Tanakh and Apostolic Parallels: Ten Men of all Nations, Ten Virgins, Ten Disciples, Ten Lepers
(Zechariah 8:20-23, compared with Matthew 20:20-28, Matthew 25:1-13, and Luke 17:11-19)
20 Thus says the LORD of Armies: “Many peoples, and the inhabitants of many cities will yet come; 21 and the inhabitants of one shall go to another, saying, ‘Let us go speedily to entreat the favor of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of Armies. I will go also.’ 22 Yes, many peoples and strong nations will come to seek the LORD of Armies in Jerusalem, and to entreat the favor of the LORD.”
23 Thus says the LORD of Armies: “In those days, ten men (Joseph) will take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, they will take hold of the skirt of him who is a Jew, (Judah) saying, ‘We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.’ ”
1 “Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, (Joseph) who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 2 Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. (Not representing only five tribes, as all twelve tribes are seen in Revelation 7; but representing a remnant from all of the tribes. See Romans 9:27, “Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved.”) 3 Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 4 but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.
5 “Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. 6 But at midnight there was a cry, ‘Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!’
7 “Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 8 The foolish said to the wise, ‘Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.’
9 “But the wise answered, saying, ‘What if there is not enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.’
10 “While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 11 Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, ‘Lord, Lord, open to us.’
12 “But he answered, ‘Most certainly I tell you, I do not know you.’ 13 Watch therefore, for you do not know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming.”
20 Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee came to Him with her sons, kneeling and asking a certain thing of Him. 21 He said to her, “What do you want?”
She said to Him, “Command that these, my two sons, may sit, one on Your right hand, and one on Your left hand, in Your Kingdom.”
22 But Yeshua answered, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am about to drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?”
They said to Him, “We are able.”
23 He said to them, “You will indeed drink My cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; but to sit on My right hand and on My left hand is not Mine to give, but it is for whom it has been prepared by My Father.”
24 When the ten heard it, (ten, representing Joseph) they were indignant with the two brothers. (two, representing Judah) 25 But Yeshua summoned them, and said, “You know that the rulers of the nations lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 26 It shall not be so among you, but whoever desires to become great among you shall be your servant. 27 Whoever desires to be first among you shall be your bondservant, 28 even as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a ransom for many.” (indicating that both houses come into unison, as in Isaiah 11:13)
11 It happened as He was on His way to Jerusalem, that He was passing along the borders of Samaria and Galilee. 12 As He entered into a certain village, ten men who were lepers met Him, (ten represents Joseph, lepers indicates that they were unclean) who stood at a distance. 13 They lifted up their voices, saying, “Yeshua, Master, have mercy on us!”
14 When He saw them, He said to them, “Go and show yourselves to the priests.” (i.e., instructing them go to Judah) It happened that as they went, they were cleansed. 15 One of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, glorifying God with a loud voice. 16 He fell on his face at Yeshua’s feet, giving Him thanks; and He was a Samaritan. (the capitol city of Joseph)
17 Yeshua answered, “Were not the ten cleansed? But where are the nine? 18 Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger?” 19 Then He said to him, “Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you.”
Parable of the the Prodigal Son
11 He said, “A certain man had two sons. (Judah and Joseph) 12 The younger (Joseph) of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me my share of your property.’ He divided his livelihood between them. 13 Not many days after, the younger son (Joseph) gathered all of this together and traveled into a far country. (among the gentiles) There he wasted his property with riotous living. 14 When he had spent all of it, there arose a severe famine in that country, and he began to be in need. 15 He went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, (among the gentiles) and he sent him into his fields to feed pigs. 16 He wanted to fill his belly with the husks that the pigs ate, but no one gave him any. 17 But when he came to himself he said, ‘How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough to spare, and I’m dying with hunger! 18 I will get up and go to my father, and will tell him, “Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. 19 I am no more worthy to be called your son. Make me as one of your hired servants.” ’
20 “He arose, and came to his father. But while he was still far off, his father saw him, and was moved with compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. 21 The son (Joseph) said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’
22 “But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring out the best robe, and put it on him. Put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. 23 Bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat, and celebrate; 24 for this, my son, (Joseph) was dead, and is alive again. He was lost, and is found.’ (Hosea 1:10, “It will come to pass that, in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not My people,’ they will be called ‘sons of the living God.’ ”) They began to celebrate.
25 “Now his elder son (Judah) was in the field. As he came near to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26 He called one of the servants to him, and asked what was going on. 27 He said to him, ‘Your brother (Joseph) has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and healthy.’ 28 But he was angry, and would not go in. Therefore his father came out, and begged him. 29 But he answered his father, ‘Behold, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. 30 But when this, your son, (Joseph) came, who has devoured your living with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him.’
31 “He said to him, ‘Son, (Judah) you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. 32 But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad, for this, your brother, (Joseph) was dead, and is alive again. He (Joseph) was lost, and is found.’ ”
To whom did Peter write?
(1 Peter 1:1-2, 2:9-10, 5:13-14)
1 Peter 1:1-2
1 Peter, an apostle of Yeshua the Messiah to the chosen ones who are living as foreigners (Joseph) in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, (all areas to which Joseph is known to have been scattered) 2 according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, that you may obey Yeshua the Messiah and be sprinkled with his blood: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.
1 Peter 2:9-10
9 But you are a chosen race, (Israel- see Deuteronomy 10:15) a royal priesthood, (Israel- see Isaiah 61:6) a holy nation, (Israel- see Exodus 19:6) a people for God’s own possession, (Israel- see Deuteronomy 7:6) that you may proclaim the excellence of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light: 10 who in time past were no people, but now are God’s people; who had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. (Joseph, see Hosea 1:10, 2:23)
1 Peter 5:13-14
13 She who is in Babylon, (Judah, exiled to Babylon in 586 BCE) chosen together with you, (Joseph) greets you; and so does Mark, my son. 14 Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace be to you all who are in the Messiah Yeshua. Amen.
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